Mix together the flour, salt and yeast in a large bowl. Add the rosemary, water and oil then mix together with a spatula or by hand until it is well combined. It should be fairly sticky.
Cover the bowl with cling wrap/film and leave at room temperature for around 12 - 18 hours to slowly rise.
The next day, preheat the oven to 425F/220C. Line a Dutch oven (or other oven-suitable dish/pan with a lid large enough to hold the bread with some space) with parchment paper so that the paper comes up the sides a little, pressing it in to shape a little. Then remove the paper and set on a work surface and place the Dutch oven in the oven as it heats up.
Uncover the bread dough and scrape down the sides so that it's less stuck to the bowl. Loosen the dough from the bottom as well.
Sit the bowl near the piece of parchment then dip the dough out onto your hands (it may help if your hands are either oiled or floured, see above). Quickly pull the dough back on itself so that you make it a slightly tight ball on one side and the pulled/rougher edges are on the other. Place the dough rough edges down on the parchment and shape the edges further around itself, as needed, tucking under a bit to form a ball.
Once the oven has come to temperature, remove the Dutch oven then lift the parchment by the corners to place it inside the Dutch oven with the dough in the middle. Cover then place back in oven and bake for 20 minutes.
After 20 minutes, remove the lid then continue to bake for approximately 20 minutes more (may take 25) until the loaf is golden brown and sounds hollow when tapped on the bottom.
Remove the loaf from the Dutch oven and allow to cool on a cooling rack a good 10 minutes or so before slicing.
Note you can also make this with bread flour but all purpose/plain works just fine.